Racism in Canada (Gender and Women’s Studies in Canada: Critical Terrain, Second Edition, Edited by Margaret Hobbs and Carla Rice 2018, p. 170-171)1(footnote) 1608 Close Modal× 1608 The French introduce Black slavery into Canada. 1613 Close Modal× 1613 French and English settlers practice genocide and attempt to exterminate the Beothuck people from Newfoundland. 1709 Close Modal× 1709 Proclamation makes slavery legal in French Canada. 1763 Close Modal× 1763 European settlers infect, exploit, and kill, Indigenous people with tuberculosis and smallpox in order to obtain Indigenous land. For instance, Lord Jeffrey Amherst practices germ warfare by giving out smallpox-infected blankets. 1763 Close Modal× 1763 Through the Treaty of Paris, France cedes the colony of New France to Britain. One effect of this transfer in power is the legal strengthening of slavery in Canada. 1784 Close Modal× 1784 Race riot in Shelburne and Birchtown, Nova Scotia. A mob destroys Black people’s property and drives Black residents out of the townships. 1869 Close Modal× 1869 First Immigration Act 1875 Close Modal× 1875 In British Columbia, the government barred Chinese Canadians from voting. 1876 Close Modal× 1876 Canada passes the Indian Act as one tool to eradicate Indigenous culture and expropriate land and resources for profit and settlement. 1880s–1996 Close Modal× 1880s–1996 Government/church-run residential schools are established. Indigenous children are taken from parents to be “civilized and educated” and “to kill the Indian in the child.” 1885 Close Modal× 1885 In response to white Canada’s racist fears of Chinese immigration, the federal government passes the Chinese Immigration Act, which introduces the Head Tax 1900s Close Modal× 1900s Federal government officials engage in a campaign to discourage Black American applicants from settlement by rejecting them on the basis of medical or other grounds. Black people￼ report being refused service and segregated in restaurants, theatres, and recreational facilities. The Ontario legislature establishes segregated schools for Black people (in place until 1964). 1902 Close Modal× 1902 Royal Commission on Chinese and Japanese Immigration (concluded that the Asians were “unfit for full citizenship … obnoxious to a free community and dangerous to the state”) 1903 Close Modal× 1903 Chinese Head Tax increased 1907 Close Modal× 1907 An order-in-council banned immigration from India and South Asian countries Clifford Sifton and Frank Oliver (Alberta's Frank Oliver was the Liberal government's Minister of the Interior, who favoured nationality over occupation, asserting his immigration policy was more “restrictive, exclusive and selective”) 1907 Close Modal× 1907 The Asiatic Exclusion League forms with the goal of restricting Asian admission to Canada. The League carries out a major demonstration, which culminates in the worst race riot in the history of British Columbia. 1908 Close Modal× 1908 The Hayashi-Lemieux agreement is amended to reduce the number of Japanese immigrants 1910 Close Modal× 1910 The Canadian Immigration Act creates a list of preferred and non-preferred countries, with British and white European immigrants on the “preferred” list and the rest of the world, made up largely of people of colour, on the “non-preferred” list. 1923 Close Modal× 1923 The Chinese Immigration Act was replaced by legislation that virtually suspended Chinese immigration Immigrants awaiting medical examination - (Source) Chinese Humiliation Day, 1923. From Canadian Encyclopedia Immigration timeline. 1923 Close Modal× 1923 The Chinese Exclusion Act bans Chinese immigration. This law remains in effect until 1947. 1942 Close Modal× 1942 Canada closes its doors to Jewish refugees fleeing Hitler’s Final Solution. Of all the Western countries, Canada admits the fewest Jewish refugees. 1942–1947 - The federal government forced Japanese Canadians into internment camps and confiscated their property. 1942–1947 Close Modal× 1942–1947 The federal government forces Japanese Canadians into internment camps and confiscated their property. 1955 Close Modal× 1955 Canadian Domestic Workers Program is established to deal with the chronic shortage of Canadian workers prepared to accept low wages and undesirable working conditions as domestic servants. The program initially targets Black women from the Caribbean, and later women from the Philippines. 1960s/1970s Close Modal× 1960s/1970s Africville, a Black settlement near Halifax, Nova Scotia, is demolished and its residents are forced to relocate. Vancouver City Council destroys Hogan’s Alley, Vancouver’s Black community, with the construction of the Georgia Street Viaduct. 1962 Close Modal× 1962 Regulations tabled by Minister of Citizenship and Immigration, Ellen Fairclough helped to eliminate racial discrimination in Canada's immigration policy Ontario’s Human Rights Code is enacted 1978 Close Modal× 1978 New Immigration Act Affirmed Canada's commitment to the resettlement of refugees from oppression 1995 Close Modal× 1995 As part of the federal budget, the government imposes the Right of Landing Fee. The fee of $975 applies to all adults, including refugees, becoming permanent residents. In 2000, the government rescinds the fee for refugees, but maintains it for immigrants. 2002 Close Modal× 2002 The Immigration and Refugee Protection Act comes into force in 2002 as a “security” measure in the wake of the September 11, 2001 attacks. The Act erodes basic rights in Canada, with some of the worst impacts being experienced by refugees and immigrants.