Mona Stonefish's Time Tree Rings1(footnote) 1492 Close Modal× 1492 Arrival of European explorers in the Caribbean. 1493 Close Modal× 1493 Christopher Columbus makes the mistake of referring to Indian that name continues to the present. 1763 Close Modal× 1763 Royal Proclamation. 1764 Close Modal× 1764 Treaty of Niagara – nation-to-nation relationship between several First Nations and the British Crown. 1831 Close Modal× 1831 Mohawk Indian Residential School (aka “Mush Hole”) opens in Brantford, Ontario. 1847 Close Modal× 1847 Egerton Ryerson recommends a model for future Indian Residential Schools. 1867 Close Modal× 1867 Canadian Confederation. 1876 Close Modal× 1876 The Indian Act - John A. Macdonald signs the Indian Act into Canadian Law. 1879 Close Modal× 1879 One of the architects of the Indian Residential School System, MP Nicholas Flood Davin produces his “Report on Industrial Schools For Indians and Half-Breeds” at the request of Canada’s first Prime Minister, Sir John A. Macdonald. 1883 Close Modal× 1883 Indian Residential Schools officially open. 1891 Close Modal× 1891 Children’s Aid Society founded. 1895 Close Modal× 1895 Indian Act banned Anishinaabe ceremonies and events including jingle dance. 1920 Close Modal× 1920 Amendments to the Indian Act accelerate assimilation. First Nations children are now compelled to attend Indian Residential Schools. Duncan Campbell Scott (Superintendent General of Indian Affairs) said “our object is to continue until there is not a single Indian in Canada that has not been absorbed into the body politic, and there is no Indian question, and no Indian department.” 1933 Close Modal× 1933 Training School for Girls in Galt opens. 1950-1954 Close Modal× 1950-1954 Indian Affairs branch of government was transferred from Mines and Resources to the Citizenship and Immigration Department. “The transfer suggested that the government viewed First Nations peoples as being analogous to recent immigrants.” (TRC IRS History, Part 2, 18) 1951 Close Modal× 1951 “Assimilation” shifts to “integration” in Indian Act – but government policy objective is still aiming to assimilate. 1960s Close Modal× 1960s Sixties Scoop. 1969 Close Modal× 1969 Mohawk Indian Residential School (“Mush Hole”) closes. 1969 Close Modal× 1969 White Paper – Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau tries to terminate Treaties, repeal the Indian Act, and accelerate integration (a new introduced in 1951 Indian Act amendments that continues to refer to assimilation). 1970 Close Modal× 1970 The Red Paper – policies (TRC IRS History, Part 2, 89). 1976 Close Modal× 1976 Grandview Training School for Girls closed (formerly Galt Training School for Girls). 1982 Close Modal× 1982 Constitution Act, Section 35 (Source). 1982 Close Modal× 1982 National Indian Brotherhood becomes the Assembly of First Nations – “represented the interests of status and Treaty Indians, p. 552 TRC history of IRS part 2). 1996 Close Modal× 1996 Last Indian Residential School closes. 2015 Close Modal× 2015 Canada’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission publishes a report on Indian Residential Schools and their ongoing legacy. 2019 Close Modal× 2019 National Inquiry into Missing and Murdered Indigenous Women and Girls is released. The report concludes that Canada’s colonial structures and policies are a primary cause of race-based genocide against First Nations, Inuit, and Métis women, girls, and 2SLGBTQQIA people. 2019 Close Modal× 2019 Into the Light: Eugenics and Education in Southern Ontario. The exhibition is guided by the wisdom of project Elder and co-creator Mona Stonefish and co-creator Peter Park. 2021 Close Modal× 2021 Unmarked graves located at sites of former Indian Residential Schools. 2022+ Close Modal× 2022+ Imagine a future other than the one given.